Upfront Carbon Emissions - Transport to Site (Module A4)

Transport emissions reductions

The emissions from transporting building products, formwork, and machinery to and from a construction site can be calculated by multiplying the total mass from a given location by an appropriate emission factor for the correct mode of transport (truck, ship, diesel train, etc.). Emissions do not need to be calculated product-by-product, but rather by the total tonne-kilometres of transport for each mode of transport.


  • 2,000 kg of scaffolding is moved to the construction site from a warehouse at the start of the project. It remains on-site for the duration of the project, after which it is moved back to the same warehouse. The distance from the warehouse to the site is 30 km. The truck travels across an urban area in both directions. Assume an emission factor of 0.128 kg CO2e/tkm.

  • GWP-Total = (30 km + 30 km) * (2,000 kg / 1,000 kg/t) * (0.128 kg CO2e/tkm)

  • GWP-Total = 15.4 kg CO2e

Sample emission factors

The following table provides sample emission factors for different modes of transport:

Freight typeCarbon footprint per tonne-kilometre (kg CO2e/tkm)Source

Air, domestic


AusLCI v1.38

Air, international


AusLCI v1.38



AusLCI v1.38

Van, 3.5t gross weight


AusLCI v1.38

Truck, 3.5 to 16t gross weight


AusLCI v1.38

Truck, 16 to 28t gross weight


AusLCI v1.38

Truck, 28t gross weight


AusLCI v1.38

Truck, 40t gross weight


AusLCI v1.38

Ship, container ship


Defra (2022)

Ship, bulk carrier


Defra (2022)

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