Products (A1 - A3)

The Product Stage (A1-A3) refers to all the processes from the extraction of raw materials to manufacturing the final product ready for delivery.

A1 - Raw Material Supply (Extraction & Processing): This includes extraction and processing of raw materials. For instance, in the case of concrete, this stage would include quarrying limestone and clay, crushing, and heating them to produce cement.

A2 - Transport: This involves the transportation of raw materials to the factory or production site. It includes the energy used and emissions produced by the vehicles involved in transporting these materials.

A3 - Manufacturing: This is the stage where the raw materials are converted into a finished product ready for shipment to the site. Using the concrete example, this would involve mixing cement with water, sand, and aggregate. It also includes the energy used and emissions produced in the factory and any pre-processing or assembly of materials or components.

These stages account for the 'cradle-to-gate' emissions of the materials used in a construction project. The intent is to cover all emissions related to the production of a building material or component, from database extraction of the raw materials right through to when it leaves the factory gate on the way to the construction site.


Speckel is agnostic regarding material databases, recognising the different methods in each and the inability to compare them against each other. Select the dropdown menu and the preferred database to access a material database. In the example below, the AusLCI database is selected.

Carbon sequestration refers to specific materials, like wood, absorbing and storing carbon dioxide during their growth. To allow relevant materials to sequestering carbon, toggle the 'Allow Sequestration' switch. This is typically not included in assessments and thus defaults to off.

Database (Customised)

Where specific values and sources are required, such as an EPD or a specific product from a database, customised values are added on a material basis. To add new materials, select 'Customised Database' and select a material layer. Then add the 'Name', 'Source', 'Emoddied Emission Factor' and 'Units'.

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